Publication: High Plasma Glutamate and a Low Glutamine-to-Glutamate Ratio Are Associated with Increased Risk of Heart Failure but Not Atrial Fibrillation in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) Study.
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Although the association between glutamate and glutamine in relation to cardiometabolic disorders has been evaluated, the role of these metabolites in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) remains unknown. We examined associations of glutamate, glutamine, and the glutamine-to-glutamate ratio with AF and HF incidence in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The present study used 2 nested case-control studies within the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study. During ∼10 y of follow-up, there were 509 AF incident cases matched to 618 controls and 326 HF incident cases matched to 426 controls. Plasma concentrations of glutamate and glutamine were semiquantitatively profiled with LC-tandem MS. ORs were estimated with multivariable conditional logistic regression models. In fully adjusted models, per 1-SD increment, glutamate was associated with a 29% (95% CI: 1.08, 1.54) increased risk of HF and glutamine-to-glutamate ratio with a 20% (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94) decreased risk. Glutamine-to-glutamate ratio was also inversely associated with HF risk (OR per 1-SD increment: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.94) when comparing extreme quartiles. Higher glutamate concentrations were associated with a worse cardiometabolic risk profile, whereas a higher glutamine-to-glutamate ratio was associated with a better cardiometabolic risk profile. No associations between the concentrations of these metabolites and AF were observed. Our findings suggest that high plasma glutamate concentrations possibly resulting from alterations in the glutamate-glutamine cycle may contribute to the development of HF in Mediterranean individuals at high CVD risk.This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN35739639.
PREDIMED, atrial fibrillation, glutamate, glutamine, heart failure