Longitudinal association of dietary acid load with kidney function decline in an older adult population with metabolic syndrome.

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Diets high in acid load may contribute to kidney function impairment. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary acid load and 1-year changes in glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR). Older adults with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (mean age 65 ± 5 years, 48% women) from the PREDIMED-Plus study who had available data on eGFR (n = 5,874) or UACR (n = 3,639) at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up were included in this prospective analysis. Dietary acid load was estimated as potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) at baseline from a food frequency questionnaire. Linear and logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the associations between baseline tertiles of dietary acid load and kidney function outcomes. One year-changes in eGFR and UACR were set as the primary outcomes. We secondarily assessed ≥ 10% eGFR decline or ≥10% UACR increase. After multiple adjustments, individuals in the highest tertile of PRAL or NEAP showed higher one-year changes in eGFR (PRAL, β: -0.64 ml/min/1.73 m2; 95% CI: -1.21 to -0.08 and NEAP, β: -0.56 ml/min/1.73 m2; 95% CI: -1.13 to 0.01) compared to those in the lowest category. No associations with changes in UACR were found. Participants with higher levels of PRAL and NEAP had significantly higher odds of developing ≥10% eGFR decline (PRAL, OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.07-1.54 and NEAP, OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03-1.50) and ≥10 % UACR increase (PRAL, OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.04-1.46) compared to individuals with lower dietary acid load. Higher PRAL and NEAP were associated with worse kidney function after 1 year of follow-up as measured by eGFR and UACR markers in an older Spanish population with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome.
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albuminuria, chronic kidney disease (CKD), dietary acid load, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), kidney function, net endogenous acid production (NEAP), potential renal acid load (PRAL), renal nutrition