Study of microRNA expression in Salmonella Typhimurium-infected porcine ileum reveals miR-194a-5p as an important regulator of the TLR4-mediated inflammatory response.

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Infection with Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a common cause of food-borne zoonosis leading to acute gastroenteritis in humans and pigs, causing economic losses to producers and farmers, and generating a food security risk. In a previous study, we demonstrated that S. Typhimurium infection produces a severe transcriptional activation of inflammatory processes in ileum. However, little is known regarding how microRNAs regulate this response during infection. Here, small RNA sequencing was used to identify 28 miRNAs differentially expressed (DE) in ileum of S. Typhimurium-infected pigs, which potentially regulate 14 target genes involved in immune system processes such as regulation of cytokine production, monocyte chemotaxis, or cellular response to interferon gamma. Using in vitro functional and gain/loss of function (mimics/CRISPR-Cas system) approaches, we show that porcine miR-194a-5p (homologous to human miR-194-5p) regulates TLR4 gene expression, an important molecule involved in pathogen virulence, recognition and activation of innate immunity in Salmonella infection.
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CRISPR-Cas9, Salmonellosis, Toll-like receptor, ileum, immunity, infection, inflammation, miRNA-seq, microRNAs, pig