Publication:
Correlation between Biomarkers of Pain in Saliva and PAINAD Scale in Elderly People with Cognitive Impairment and Inability to Communicate

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Abstract
The pain assessment in advanced dementia (PAINAD) appears to be a clinically useful tool. However, the salivary determination of tumor necrosis factor receptor type II (sTNF-RII) and secretory IgA (sIgA) as pain biomarkers is still incipient. The aim was to correlate the PAINAD score with sTNF-RII and sIgA biomarker levels in the saliva of patients with advanced dementia. In this regard, a cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of 75 elderly patients with a clinical diagnosis of dementia and a global deterioration scale (GDS) score of 5 to 7. The PAINAD scale was determined by a previously trained professional and the collection of salivary samples was performed using the passive secretion method. Human sTNF-RII and sIgA using ELISA kits. The results showed a correlation between the PAINAD scale (numeric, binary, and recoded) and sTNF-RII and sIgA (p < 0.001). No association between the sociodemographic and clinical variables and the PAINAD scale was found (p > 0.05). Between 97.3% and 96.2% of patients with pain on the PAINAD scale also showed pain based on the sTNF-RII levels; in all of them, sIgA levels did not fit the logistic models. Therefore, the correlation highlights the usefulness of this scale and confirms the usefulness of sTNF-RII and sIgA as biomarkers of pain.
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Medical Subject Headings::Organisms::Eukaryota::Animals::Chordata::Vertebrates::Mammals::Primates::Haplorhini::Catarrhini::Hominidae::Humans
Medical Subject Headings::Persons::Persons::Age Groups::Adult::Aged
Medical Subject Headings::Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment::Diagnosis::Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures::Physical Examination::Neurologic Examination::Pain Measurement
Medical Subject Headings::Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment::Investigative Techniques::Epidemiologic Methods::Epidemiologic Study Characteristics as Topic::Epidemiologic Studies::Cross-Sectional Studies
Medical Subject Headings::Chemicals and Drugs::Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins::Proteins::Membrane Proteins::Receptors, Cell Surface::Receptors, Immunologic::Receptors, Cytokine::Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor::Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type II
Medical Subject Headings::Anatomy::Fluids and Secretions::Bodily Secretions::Saliva
Medical Subject Headings::Psychiatry and Psychology::Mental Disorders::Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders::Dementia
Medical Subject Headings::Chemicals and Drugs::Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins::Proteins::Globulins::Serum Globulins::Immunoglobulins::Antibodies::Immunoglobulin Isotypes::Immunoglobulin A::Immunoglobulin A, Secretory
Medical Subject Headings::Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment::Investigative Techniques::Immunologic Techniques::Immunoassay::Immunoenzyme Techniques::Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
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Keywords
Dementia, Pain, Pain assessment in advanced dementia, Biomarkers, Nursing, Demencia, Dolor, Medida del dolor, Biomarcadores, Enfermería
Citation
Cantón-Habas V, Rich-Ruiz M, Moreno-Casbas MT, Ramírez-Expósito MJ, Martínez-Martos JM, Carrera-González MDP. Correlation between Biomarkers of Pain in Saliva and PAINAD Scale in Elderly People with Cognitive Impairment and Inability to Communicate. J Clin Med. 2021 Apr 1;10(7):1424