Subwavelength-Grating Metamaterial Structures for Silicon Photonic Devices

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Ieee-inst electrical electronics engineers inc
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Segmenting silicon waveguides at the subwave-length scale produce an equivalent homogenous material. The geometry of the waveguide segments provides precise control over modal confinement, effective index, dispersion and birefringence, thereby opening up new approaches to design devices with unprecedented performance. Indeed, with ever-improving lithographic technologies offering sub-100-nm patterning resolution in the silicon photonics platform, many practical devices based on subwavelength structures have been demonstrated in recent years. Subwavelength engineering has thus become an integral design tool in silicon photonics, and both fundamental understanding and novel applications are advancing rapidly. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the state of the art in this field. We first cover the basics of subwavelength structures, and discuss substrate leakage, fabrication jitter, reduced backscatter, and engineering of material anisotropy. We then review recent applications including broadband waveguide couplers, high-sensitivity evanescent field sensors, low-loss devices for mid-infrared photonics, polarization management structures, spectral filters, and highly efficient fiber-to-chip couplers. We finally discuss the future prospects for subwavelength silicon structures and their impact on advanced device design.
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Fiber-to-chip coupler, filter, metamaterial, mid-infrared, near-infrared, polarization, silicon photonics, sensor, subwavelength grating, waveguide, waveguide coupler, Tolerant polarization splitter, Insulator wave-guides, On-insulator, Interleaved trenches, High-directionality, Coupler, Compact, Fabrication, Rotator, Design