Effectiveness of mHealth Interventions in the Control of Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients After a Coronary Event: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

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Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death and loss of disability-adjusted life years worldwide. Information and communication technology has become an important part of health care systems, including the innovative cardiac rehabilitation services through mobile phone and mobile health (mHealth) interventions. In this study, we aimed to determine the effectiveness of different kinds of mHealth programs in changing lifestyle behavior, promoting adherence to treatment, and controlling modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and psychosocial outcomes in patients who have experienced a coronary event. A systematic review of the literature was performed following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. A thorough search of the following biomedical databases was conducted: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, SciELO, CINAHL, Scopus, The Clinical Trial, and Cochrane. Articles that were randomized clinical trials that involved an intervention consisting of an mHealth program using a mobile app in patients after a coronary event were included. The articles analyzed some of the following variables as outcome variables: changes in lifestyle behavior, cardiovascular risk factors, and anthropometric and psychosocial variables. A meta-analysis of the variables studied was performed with the Cochrane tool. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool; the quality of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation tool; and heterogeneity was measured using the I2 test. A total of 23 articles were included in the review, and 20 (87%) were included in the meta-analysis, with a total sample size of 4535 patients. Exercise capacity measured using the 6-minute walk test (mean difference=21.64, 95% CI 12.72-30.55; P mHealth technology has a positive effect on patients who have experienced a coronary event in terms of their exercise capacity, physical activity, adherence to medication, and physical and mental quality of life, as well as readmissions for all causes and cardiovascular causes. PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) CRD42022299931;
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acute coronary syndrome, coronary disease, mobile apps, mobile health, mobile phone, smartphone