Hyponatraemia, mortality and haemodialysis: An unexplained association.

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As in the general population, in patients on haemodialysis (HD) hyponatraemia is associated with higher mortality risk. The objective of this article was to study the relationship between predialysis serum sodium (sNa) and mortality in an HD population. We also intended to define hyponatraemia and determine the characteristics of hyponatraemic patients in terms of anthropometric data, analytical features, dialysis measurements and hydration (bioimpedance). Observational, descriptive study of a cohort of HD incident patients. The independent variable was the mean of each patient's sNa analysed during their first 6 months on HD. A total of 4,153 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 64.7 years; 65.2% of the patients were male and 35% were diabetics. Mean follow-up time was 21.48 (SD) (1.31) months. sNa had a normal distribution, with a mean (SD)=138.46 (2.7) mEq/l. Body weight, diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure, interdialytic weight gain, total ultrafiltration, serum glucose, albumin and creatinine, vascular access and haemodialysis type, acquire significant differences between sodium quartiles. Lean tissue index (LTI) in patients with low serum sodium, Q1 (135 mEq/l), was significantly lower than the LTI of patients from the other serum sodium quartiles. Patients with sNa HD patients with hyponatraemia patients have a poor prognosis and present malnutrition or fluid overload.
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CIE Terms
Diabetes, Haemodialysis, Hemodiálisis, Hiponatremia, Hyponatraemia, Mortalidad, Mortality, Natremia, Serum sodium