The role of nutrition in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Pathophysiology and management.

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A healthy diet together with physical activity could induce weight loss and control the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the composition of diet has not been clearly established. Macronutrients such as saturated fatty acids (SFA), trans-fats, simple sugars and animal proteins have a harmful effect on the liver. On the other hand, monounsaturated fats (MUFAs), polyunsaturated (PUFAs) omega-3-fats, plant-based proteins and dietary fibres are considered to be beneficial to the liver. The impact of specific micronutrients is less well-known. Nutrients are part of the food we eat. Food makes up our meals, which compose our dietary patterns. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients usually follow Western diets which are rich in soda, frozen junk food, juice, red meat, lard, processed meats, whole fat dairy foods, fatty snack foods, take-away foods, cakes and biscuits and poor in cereals, whole grains, fruit, vegetables, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish. On the other hand, the Mediterranean diet (MD) is beneficial for NAFLD even when it is iso-caloric or there are no changes in body weight. A new approach, called 'nutritional geometry' considers the importance of integrating nutrition, animals and the environment. The goal of this approach is to combine nutrients and foods in a model to understand how food components interact to regulate the properties of diets affecting health and disease. The use of algorithms developed by artificial intelligence (AI) to create a personalized diet for patients can provide customized nutritional counselling to prevent and treat NAFLD.
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artificial intelligence, dietary guidelines, macronutrients, micronutrients, nutritional geometry, personalized nutrition