Thyroid hormones in diabetes, cancer, and aging

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Thyroid function is central in the control of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Studies in animal models and human research have determined that thyroid hormones modulate cellular processes relevant for aging and for the majority of age-related diseases. While several studies have associated mild reductions on thyroid hormone function with exceptional longevity in animals and humans, alterations in thyroid hormones are serious medical conditions associated with unhealthy aging and premature death. Moreover, both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been associated with the development of certain types of diabetes and cancers, indicating a great complexity of the molecular mechanisms controlled by thyroid hormones. In this review, we describe the latest findings in thyroid hormone research in the field of aging, diabetes, and cancer, with a special focus on hepatocellular carcinomas. While aging studies indicate that the direct modulation of thyroid hormones is not a viable strategy to promote healthy aging or longevity and the development of thyromimetics is challenging due to inefficacy and potential toxicity, we argue that interventions based on the use of modulators of thyroid hormone function might provide therapeutic benefit in certain types of diabetes and cancers.
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CIE Terms
Cancer, Diabetes, Health span, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Life span, Thyroid hormones, Neoplasias, Diabetes mellitus, Hipertiroidismo, Hipotiroidismo, Longevidad, Hormonas tiroideas
Gauthier BR, Sola-García A, Cáliz-Molina MÁ, Lorenzo PI, Cobo-Vuilleumier N, Capilla-González V, et al. Thyroid hormones in diabetes, cancer, and aging. Aging Cell. 2020 Nov;19(11):e13260