D-Pinitol from Ceratonia siliqua Is an Orally Active Natural Inositol That Reduces Pancreas Insulin Secretion and Increases Circulating Ghrelin Levels in Wistar Rats.

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To characterize the metabolic actions of D-Pinitol, a dietary inositol, in male Wistar rats, we analyzed its oral pharmacokinetics and its effects on (a) the secretion of hormones regulating metabolism (insulin, glucagon, IGF-1, ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin), (b) insulin signaling in the liver and (c) the expression of glycolytic and neoglucogenesis enzymes. Oral D-Pinitol administration (100 or 500 mg/Kg) resulted in its rapid absorption and distribution to plasma and liver compartments. Its administration reduced insulinemia and HOMA-IR, while maintaining glycaemia thanks to increased glucagon activity. In the liver, D-Pinitol reduced the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase and decreased the phosphorylation of the enzymes AKT and GSK-3. These observations were associated with an increase in ghrelin concentrations, a known inhibitor of insulin secretion. The profile of D-Pinitol suggests its potential use as a pancreatic protector decreasing insulin secretion through ghrelin upregulation, while sustaining glycaemia through the liver-based mechanisms of glycolysis control.
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AKT, D-Pinitol, ghrelin, insulin, insulin resistance, liver, phosphorylation