Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients without advanced fibrosis after HCV eradication antiviral treatment.

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From the last few years, hepatitis C virus and the new direct antiviral treatments are being more and more important. In consequence, case studies like the one we present, the appearance of hepatocelullar carcinoma after its eradication with fibrosis grade 2, are getting special interest. In 2007, our patient was treated with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin, having a sustained virological response after it. In this way, liver fibrosis grade 2 was confirmed by a biopsy. Finally, after corroborating a good liver functioning, the patient was discharged (as, according to the guidebooks, an ultrasound scan of screeing every 6 months was not required). In 2014, the patient came to hospital because of a pain at right hypochondrium and he was diagnosed with hepatocelullar carcinoma. A hepatectomy was done objectifying the surgical piece, liver fibrosis grade 2, one more time. Subsequently, a tumour relapse through an abdominal CT scan, a tumour relapse was found and despite the Sorafenib treatment, the patient died on January 2015. This case study provokes curiosity and uncertainty about the attitude which should be taken respect to the monitoring, and hepatocelullar carcinoma screening overall, in patients with a sustained virological response after eradicator treatment and without advanced fibrosis. Nowadays, with the benefits of the new treatments, the amount of patients in this situation is increasing significantly.
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