Risk Factors for Periprosthetic Joint Infection after Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

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Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a major adverse event of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) from the patient's perspective, and it is also costly for health care systems. In 2010, the reported incidence of PJI in the first 2 years after TKA was 1.55%, with an incidence of 0.46% between the second and tenth year. In 2022, it has been published that 1.41% of individuals require revision TKA for PJI. The following risk factors have been related to an increased risk of PJI: male sex, younger age, type II diabetes, obesity class II, hypertension, hypoalbuminemia, preoperative nutritional status as indicated by prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and body mass index, rheumatoid arthritis, post-traumatic osteoarthritis, intra-articular injections prior to TKA, previous multi-ligament knee surgery, previous steroid therapy, current tobacco use, procedure type (bilateral), length of stay over 35 days, patellar resurfacing, prolonged operative time, use of blood transfusions, higher glucose variability in the postoperative phase, and discharge to convalescent care. Other reported independent risk factors for PJI (in diminishing order of importance) are congestive heart failure, chronic pulmonary illness, preoperative anemia, depression, renal illness, pulmonary circulation disorders, psychoses, metastatic tumor, peripheral vascular illness, and valvular illness. Preoperative intravenous tranexamic acid has been reported to diminish the risk of delayed PJI. Knowing the risk factors for PJI after TKA, especially those that are avoidable or controllable, is critical to minimizing (ideally preventing) this complication. These risk factors are outlined in this article.
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periprosthetic joint infection, risk factors, total knee arthroplasty