Validation of the Spanish version of the Franciscan Hospital for Children Oral Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire.

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The Franciscan Hospital for Children Oral Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire (FHC-OHRQOL-Q) is an instrument designed specifically for parents and caregivers of patients with special needs that has not yet been applied in Spain. The aim of this study was to adapt it to Spanish and evaluate its reliability and validity in patients with intellectual disability (ID) treated under general anesthesia. The study was conducted in two different stages: a) cross-cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire, and b) cross-sectional study on 100 parents and caregivers who completed the piloted FHC-OHRQOL-Q. The patients were examined according to the WHO methodology. Dental treatments performed were recorded. Statistical tests were used to evaluate reliability (internal consistency) and validity (content, criterion, construct and discriminant) of the instrument. The mean age was 24 years (range=4-71 years). The most frequent causes of ID were psychomotor retardation (25%) and cerebral palsy (24%). The items most frequently answered by parents and caregivers were eating and nutrition problems (80%) and bad breath/taste (57%). Reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient) was considered excellent (alpha=0.80-0.95). The analysis of the factorial validity yielded similar results to the original questionnaire. The high response rate of items (>96%) allowed content validity. Criterion validity was confirmed by a significant correlation with questions on oral health and oral well-being. Discriminant validity was demonstrated by the significant association of ≥21.5 years of age with worse oral symptoms (p=0.034) and parental concerns (p=0.005), DMFT index ≥3 with daily life problems (p=0.02), ≥4 decayed teeth with daily life problems (p=0.001), and >2 dental extractions with oral symptoms (p=0.000), daily life problems (p=0.002) and parent's perceptions (p=0.043). The FHC-OHRQOL-Q in Spanish is a reliable and valid instrument to apply in clinical practice to evaluate the impact of OHRQOL in mostly adult patients with ID, accessible to Spanish-speaking parents and caregivers.
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