Changes in the Epidemiology of Diabetic Retinopathy in Spain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its changes in the last 20 years in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Spain. A systematic review with a meta-analysis was carried out on the studies published between 2001-2020 on the prevalence and incidence of DR and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) in Spain. The articles included were selected from four databases and publications of the Spanish Ministry of Health and Regional Health Care System (RHCS). The meta-analysis to determine heterogeneity and bias between studies was carried out with the MetaXL 4.0. Since 2001, we have observed an increase in the detection of patients with DM, and at the same time, screening programs for RD have been launched; thus, we can deduce that the increase in the detection of patients with DM, many of them in the initial phases, far exceeds the increased detection of patients with DR. The prevalence of DR was higher between 2001 and 2008 with values of 28.85%. These values decreased over the following period between 2009 and 2020 with a mean of 15.28%. Similarly the STDR prevalence decrease from 3.67% to 1.92% after 2008. The analysis of the longitudinal studies determined that the annual DR incidence was 3.83%, and the STDR annual incidence was 0.41%. In Spain, for T2DM, the current prevalence of DR is 15.28% and 1.92% forSTDR. The annual incidence of DR is 3.83% and is 0.41% for STDR.
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diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy incidence, diabetic retinopathy prevalence, epidemiology, meta-analysis, screening, systematic review