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Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric validation of a Spanish version of the revised Patients' Attitudes Towards Deprescribing (rPATD) questionnaire.

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Abstract
Successful deprescribing depends largely on factors related to the patient. The revised Patients' Attitudes Towards Deprescribing (rPATD) questionnaire was developed with the objective of evaluating the beliefs and attitudes of older adults and caregivers towards deprescribing. The present study was designed to validate a Spanish version of the rPATD questionnaire, both the versions for older adults and for caregivers, through a qualitative validation phase and the analysis of its psychometric properties. Cross-sectional validation study. Primary care settings in Málaga (Spain). A sample of 120 subjects (60 patients with polypharmacy and 60 caregivers of patients with polypharmacy) were enrolled in the study. In the qualitative validation stage, the rPATD questionnaire was translated/back-translated and subjected to a cross-cultural adaptation to evaluate its face validity and feasibility. Next, its psychometric properties were assessed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate construct validity. Internal consistency was determined using Cronbach's alpha test. Criterion validity through pre-established hypotheses from the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) Specific-Concerns Scale, and test-retest reliability were analysed. Confirmatory factor analysis verified the four-factor structure of the original rPATD questionnaire, with items loading into four factors: involvement, burden, appropriateness and concerns about stopping. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the factors ranged from 0.683 to 0.879. The burden, appropriateness and concerns about stopping factors were significantly correlated with the BMQ Specific-Concerns Score, except for the concerns about stopping factor in the older adults' version. The consistency of the items between administration times (test-retest reliability) showed weighted Cohen's kappa values ranging from moderate (>0.4) to very good (>0.8). The Spanish version of the rPATD questionnaire is a feasible, valid and reliable instrument to evaluate attitudes towards deprescribing in Spanish-speaking patients and caregivers.
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Caregivers, Deprescribing, PatientPreferences, Polypharmacy, Psychometric properties, Spain
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