Analysis of Fall Risk Factors in an Aging Population Living in Long-Term Care Institutions in SPAIN: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

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Falls in the elderly are associated with morbidity and mortality. Research about fall risk factors in Spanish care facilities is scarce. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of falls among residents living in long-term care Spanish institutions and to identify fall risk factors in this population. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted in 113 centers. Persons over 70 years old who were living in a residential setting for at least 1 year were included. Simple and multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between the main clinical variables registered in the databases and the presence of falls. A total of 2849 subjects were analyzed (mean age 85.21 years). The period prevalence of fallers in the last 12 months was 45.3%, with a proportion of recurrent fallers of 51.7%. The presence of falls was associated with lower Tinetti Scale scores (OR = 1.597, 95% CI: 1.280, 1.991; OR = 1.362, 95% CI: 1.134, 1.635), severe or moderate cognitive impairment (OR= 1.992, 95% CI: 1.472, 2.695; OR = 1.507, 95% CI: 1.231, 1.845, respectively), and polypharmacy (OR = 1.291, 95% CI: 1.039, 1.604). Fall prevention interventions should focus on the prevention of balance and cognitive deterioration and the improvement of these functions when possible. It should also focus on a periodical medication history revision aiming to avoid inappropriate prescriptions.
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accident prevention, accidental falls, aged, residential facilities