Ischemia-guided vs routine non-culprit vessel angioplasty for patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and multi-vessel disease: the IAEA SPECT STEMI trial.

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In patients with multi-vessel disease presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the efficacy and safety of ischemia-guided, vs routine non-culprit vessel angioplasty has not been adequately studied. We conducted an international, randomized, non-inferiority trial comparing ischemia-guided non-culprit vessel angioplasty to routine non-culprit vessel angioplasty, following primary PCI for STEMI. The primary outcome was the between-group difference in percent ischemic myocardium at follow-up stress MPI. All MPI images were processed and analyzed at a central core lab, blinded to treatment allocation. In all, 109 patients were enrolled from nine countries. In the ischemia-guided arm, 25/48 (47%) patients underwent non-culprit vessel PCI following stress MPI. In the routine non-culprit PCI arm, 43/56 (77%) patients underwent angioplasty (86% within 6 weeks of randomization). The median percentage of ischemic myocardium on follow-up imaging (mean 16.5 months) was low, and identical (2.9%) in both arms (difference 0.13%, 95%CI - 1.3%-1.6%, P  A strategy of ischemia-guided non-culprit PCI resulted in low ischemia burden, and was non-inferior to a strategy of routine non-culprit vessel PCI in reducing ischemia burden. Selective non-culprit PCI following STEMI offers the potential for cost-savings, and may be particularly relevant to low-resource settings. (CTRI/2018/08/015384).
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MPI, Myocardial ischemia and infarction, SPECT