Clinical Manifestations of COVID-19 in the Feet: A Review of Reviews.

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There is a lack of scientific evidence about the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The clinical manifestations are not thoroughly understood; classically, the virus manifests itself at the pulmonary level but can manifest at other levels. To the best of our knowledge, systematic reviews and non-systematic reviews about COVID-19 symptoms in the feet have not been published. The aim of this review of reviews was to analyze and synthesize the published reviews on manifestations of COVID-19 at the foot level. Methods: a review of reviews was conducted; the eligibility criteria included studies published in English or Spanish, involving children and adults with COVID-19, and reporting foot manifestations. PubMed, SciELO, Science Direct, Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, and Google Scholar were analyzed. Two authors independently performed the screening and quality assessment of the studies with AMSTAR 1, and finally, nine reviews were analyzed (one systematic and eight narratives studies). The main clinical manifestations at the foot level in patients with COVID-19 were vascular (edema, exanthems, chilblains, ischemia, and distal necrosis), dermatological (vesicular, maculopapular, papulosquamous, urticarial skin breakouts, and recurrent herpes), and neurological (muscular weakness in lower limbs, paresis, areflexias, ataxia, and difficulty walking). Erythema pernio or "COVID toes" was shown as the most characteristic lesion of this disease, especially in asymptomatic children and young people, so this typical manifestation may be considered important in patients who are positive for COVID-19. This finding does not allow for strong conclusions due to the scarce literature and methodological quality in this regard. Future studies are necessary.
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COVID-19, clinical manifestations, foot, review of reviews, signs and symptoms